Cognicion Y Aprendizaje – Fundamentos Psicologicos (Spanish, Paperback) / Author: Anibal Puente Ferreras ; ; Reference works. Practicas de cognicion y aprendizaje / Cognition and learning practices: Fundamentos Psicologicos (Psicologia) (Spanish Edition) [Anibal Puente Ferreras. Cognicion y aprendizaje/ Cognition and Learning by Anibal Puente Ferreras, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
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Although receptive priming has long been used as a way to examine lexical access in puene, few studies have applied this method to children and rarely in an auditory modality.
We compared auditory associative priming in children and adults. A testing battery and a Lexical Decision LD task was administered to 42 adults and 27 children 8. Then participants pressed one key for word pairs, and another for pairs with a word and a pseudoword.
They also had to press the two keys alternatively for tone pairs as a basic auditory congicion. Both groups of participants, children and adults, exhibited semantic priming, with significantly faster Reaction Times RTs to semantically related word pairs than to unrelated pairs and to the two word-pseudoword sets.
The priming effect was twice as large in the adults compared to children, and the children not the adults were significantly slower in their response to word-pseudoword pairs than to the unrelated word pairs.
Moreover, accuracy was somewhat higher in adults than children for each word pair type, but especially in the word-pseudoword pairs. As expected, children were significantly slower than adults in the RTs for all stimulus types, and their RTs decreased significantly from 8 to 10 years of age and they also decreased in relation to some of cognicionn language abilities development e.
Auditory processing and semantic networks are still developing in year old children. In a series of three experiments the influence that information unrecognised by the subjects has on the effectiveness of occurring cognitive puenet is studied.
With this aim 3 types of stimulus were compared which for one reason or another were not afforded sufficient attention, namely: All the listed types of stimuli are united in that the subjects were not able to give an account of them, i. It is assumed that each of the types of stimuli studied is in actuality perceived, which can be judged by the impact they have on occurring cognitive activity.
The purpose of the present research is the comparison of this impact: To this end, each experiment had a control condition the puejte of which was the creation of the possibility for the subjects to perceive stimuli unnoticed under experimental conditions.
An experimental priming paradigm was used in combination with image-classification and lexical-decision tasks. Thus, subliminally presented information aids, and distractors, on the contrary, hinder the solution of tasks associated with them, whereas unperceived meanings of polysemantic information hinder not only the solution of the tasks directly associated aprenxizaje them, but also the performance of any other cognitive activity for which they serve as a context.
The effect of subliminal stimuli on occurring cognitive activity in the present research is explained by the spreading activation in the memory, the effect of distractors — by the inhibition of irrelevant representations in the information-processing system. For an explanation of puentee consequence of unperceived meanings of polysemanticity, not only an inhibition model was used, but also an unconscious negative choice model which assumed the necessity of making a special decision on non-perception.
In order to check the validity of this new Working Memory WM task, we used the same reasoning task used in the previous study as well as a new reading comprehension test. The results show the tight relationship amongst working memory, reading comprehension and reasoning, and confirm the validity of the coynicion WM measure.
Although basic numerical skills have been widely studied in the last years, very few studies have undertaken a developmental approach.
The results showed a significant decrease on quantities processing speed as age increases, which suggests numerical skills tend to become automatic with instruction.
The differences found, concerning the general achievement pattern in each school year, might express the maturational specificities of the numerical representation system through development.
The reading achievement of children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD has scarcely been explored in research conducted in the Spanish language and when it has, the results have been contradictory. The sample was comprised of Argentine schoolchildren aged 9 to 13 years old.
Students with ADHD had lower achievement on tests of reading comprehension compared to the control group. Gender differences in choice of studies emerge already in adolescence. Two studies with adolescents are presented, the goal of which is to explore the influence of gender by assessing males and females who choose studies related to Medicine or Engineering.
Implicit attitudes are more favorable towards women if they are studying Medicine and towards men if they study Engineering. The results are analyzed with relation to the percentages of boys and girls in the different fields of study. Despite there being numerous studies on sociometric status, research that analyzes this variable from a contextualized viewpoint taking into account the different school settings in which a pupil establishes relationships is rare.
The aim of this study is to analyze the stability of sociometric status in different school settings. For this purpose, students filled in a sociometric questionnaire that investigated two different settings: The main results cobnicion that identification percentages are almost the same in both settings. Nonetheless, all sociometric types are contextually dependent, and some are more dependent than others.
Thus, rejection is observed as being the most independent of context, whereas the most dependent is that of controversial pupils. Puehte analyses show that sex modifies the results obtained. It is shown that, excluding a few exceptions, combinations of sociometric types in both settings investigated can be made.
These results are discussed in connection with the methodology used to identify sociometric types and their practical implication for better school adjustment. Gardner 10 intelligence subtypes. The results were in line with previous studies, in that both sexes rated the overall intelligence of their first male children higher than the first female children.
Cognicion Y Aprendizaje: Fundamentos Psicologicos
Higher parental IQ self-estimates correspond with higher IQ estimates for children. Globally parents estimated that their sons had significantly higher IQs than their daughters. Participants thought verbal, mathematical, and spatial intelligence were the best indicators of the overall intelligence for self and children.
There were no sex differences in experience of, or attitudes towards, intelligence testing.
Results are discussed in terms of the growing literature in the self-estimates of intelligence, as well as limitations of that approach. Breakdown of foster care has been defined as the situation in which one of the involved parties terminates the intervention before having achieved the goals established for the case plan. This work presents a study carried out with a Spanish sample of closed cases of children who were placed in foster homes and kinship care.
The data were collected through the exhaustive review of the child protection and foster placement files, complemented with interviews of the welfare workers in charge of each case.
The rate of breakdown of the entire sample was The results of this study indicate that the variables related to breakdown depend on the placement modality, either in foster care or kinship care. The fact of undergoing foster placement after having lived in various residential homes is transcendental. Los resultados de este estudio indican que las variables relacionadas con la ruptura dependen de la modalidad del acogimiento, en familia ajena o extensa.
Research on adjustment of internationally adopted children indicates that, although they have adequate development, more emotional and behavioral problems are detected compared with nonadopted children. Results indicate differences between adopted and nonadopted children related to somatization, adopted minors are those that obtain lower scores in the scale, and in the adaptability scale, where nonadopted minors obtain higher scores.
Significant differences were found in the adaptive abilities scales, suggesting that nonadopted boys show better abilities than adopted ones, and no differences were found among girls.
In general, boys present higher scores in externalizing symptomatology and depression than girls. Among adopted children, time spent in an institution is a variable that has negative impact on the onset of externalizing and internalizing problems. Minors coming from Eastern Europe display more attentional problems, poorer adaptive abilities and poorer interpersonal relations than the rest of the minors.
According to the age at placement, attentional problems appear in minors adopted after the age of 3 years. There is a small, but growing, body of research investigating peer-victimisation between preschoolers, an age which has been identified as being important both theoretically and practically for the development of interventions.
This study compares aggressive and defending behaviour and victim status of preschoolers in three European countries. England, Spain and Italy. The results provide further confirmation that some children behave aggressively towards their peers during preschool in each of the countries studied. There are similarities between preschool children involved in peer-victimisation in the three countries in terms of the roles taken, sex differences and the types of aggressive behaviours used and experienced by the children.
There were differences in the profiles of children identified as taking the roles by teachers and peers. Overall, it was found that those children identified by peers or teachers as being aggressive were more likely to be male, rated as physically strong and more likely to be rejected by classmates. Also, in general, the targets of peer-victimisation differed depending on the reporter.
Peer-nominated victims were not identifiable in terms of gender, popularity or physical strength. Teacher-nominated victims were more likely to be socially rejected and physically weak.
There are several subtle differences between the countries which deserve further investigation. The findings are discussed in relation to furthering our understanding of the development of peer-victimisation in preschools and the need for interventions which address this phenomenon.
We use the term Quixoteism to refer to a new social motive. The characterization of this motive deals with two aspects: Three studies were conducted to test this characterization. In Study 1 we developed an empirical measure of the transcendental-change orientation. The participants in Studies 2 and 3 were presented with a need situation. Results showed that the centrality of such an orientation was directly related to an interpretation consistent with the ultimate goal of Quixoteism Study 2and that its salience increases the likelihood of performing a high-cost prosocial behavior Study 3.
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Recently a psychological mechanism has been proposed between bodily purity and moral purity: The act of washing their hands seems to free individuals of their guilt. However, the universality of this psychological mechanism is an empirical question that should be studied. Spanish samples showed sensibility to morality and helping behaviour but not with cleansing as a way to reduce their threatened morality.
In the present study we examine feelings of group-based guilt among Portuguese people in relation to the Portuguese colonial war, and their consequences for social behaviour. The consequences of group-based guilt are also analyzed. Outgroup identification correlates with compensatory behavioural intentions and openness to negative information about the colonial war. As expected, feelings of group-based guilt show a significant correlation with compensatory behavioural intentions.
Links between political orientation, ingroup attachment and glorification, exonerating cognitions and group-based guilt are analyzed and their implications for intergroup relations are discussed. The aim was to provide a taxonomy of the consequences of psychological violence and to validate this taxonomy, by means of a content analysis of 37 testimonies of victims of terrorist violence.
The taxonomy of consequences of psychological violence is made up by four components: Results show a predominance of contextual consequences and negative cognitions.
Cognicion y aprendizaje/ Cognition and Learning : Anibal Puente Ferreras :
Intra-observer and inter-observer reliability analysis showed high stability and reproducibility coefficients. This study shows that harassment and psychological violence have major consequences not only for victims but also for family members, threatened collectives and even the society as a whole. Los resultados muestran una predominancia de las consecuencias contextuales y las cogniciones negativas.
The aim of this study was to create an explanatory model that allows analyzing the predictive power of a set of variables related to political knowledge.
We also analyzed the combined relationship between these variables, together with age, and political knowledge. The data was subjected to a structural equation modelling SEM analysis, which allowed for the corroboration of the following hypotheses: Moreover, the following hypotheses could not be verified: