Introducción: muy pocos suplementos nutricionales han demostrado científicamente su eficacia como ayuda ergogénica. Esta revisión analizará el monohidrato. Terkko Navigator is a medical library community for the University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital. Personalize your own library of feeds. Get this from a library! Ayudas ergogénicas y nutricionales: la oportunidad de conocerlas y manejarlas. [Juan Carlos González González].
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University of Castilla-La Mancha. School of Health Sciences. University of Murcia, Murcia. We would like to thank to all participants for ergogeicas uninterested participation in this project and Joan Sacristan from Nutrisport S. However, sports nutritionist were the principal advisors in the top tennis players T; However, T tennis player have an increased use of certain substances such us caffeine, creatine, iron and CHO-Protein mix.
In recent years, the interest of nutritional supplements NtS and ergogenic aids EA has dramatically increased in the sports arena. NtS are defined as concentrated sources of nutrients or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect beyond what is supplemented by a normal diet 1while EA are pharmacological agents used for the purpose of enhancing sports performance 2.
Commercial brands have found a profitable market where high performance athletes 3university students 4 and young amateur athletes ergogenicaw avidly supplement their diets with these type of products. This could endanger athlete’s health or cause competition ban if containing doping substances 7. Although the use of NtS and EA is generalized in all the spectrum of performance i.
Tennis is an intermittent sport which combines short-high intensity efforts with moderate to low intensity periods i.
Tennis performance depends of the interaction among technical, tactical, physical and psychological factors 10 which includes nutritional aspects 2. In addition, environmental conditions 11 play a relevant role in tennis success. Recently, time-of-day has been proposed as a factor which could modify physical tennis performance Top tennis players compete on average 25 tournaments per year around the world Travelling through different time-zones added to the high physical demands of professional tennis competition, represent a challenge in the sports nutrition field in order to find recovery strategies aimed to maintain the competitive level during the whole season.
To our knowledge there are two recent reviews on the issue of nutritional supplements in tennis, one by Ranchordas et al. However, there are no reports of NtS and EA use specifically among professional tennis players. Thus, the first objective of this study was to describe the use of NtS and EA in males i.
WTA professional tennis players. The second objective of this study was to compare NtS and EA intake between tennis players inside and outside the top world ranking. Seventy-one professional tennis players, 62 male tennis players Within volunteers, 5 tennis male players and 3 female players were in the top worldwide ranking T age The study complied with the declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Bioethics Commission of the University of Murcia Spain.
For the volunteers recruited during the tournaments body weight and body-fat percentage were measured using a wall-mounted stadiometer SecaSeca Ltd. A 4-page questionnaire was developed to assess the frequency, dose and types of NtS and EA used by professional tennis players, based in two questionnaires previously validated 3, The questionnaire was divided in two different sections.
The first section assessed the frequency and dose of NtS and EA taken by tennis players, as well as the reasons for taking them and who did advice its consumption e. The second part specifies the NtS and EA used by the athlete such as minerals, energy drinks, protein and branched amino-acids BCAAvitamins, and short-chain or omega 3-fatty acids among others.
Data are presented as means and standard deviation SD for the participant’s characteristics, ergogenicaas frequencies and percentages are used for the nutrucionales of the data. Shapiro-Wilk test a normal distribution of recorded data.
Baseline characteristics comparisons between players inside and outside world ranking T and OT, respectively were analysed using T-test for independent samples. Data revealed that In both groups sport drinks were ergkgenicas most used NtS Use of legit ergogenic aids is displayed in table II. It is remarkable that some NtS as sports drinks nutricionxles commonly used daily, whereas some EA and mineral supplementation e.
Only among the OT players it was observed that family members, friends and internet web sites were information sources for NtS and EA use. For both, T and OT participants, recovery between efforts Nutrition and training are determinant factors in the overall performance of tennis players.
However, the scientific literature in the field of nutritional supplements and ergogenic aids applied to competitive tennis players is scarce. To our knowledge, this is the first study presenting a descriptive nutticionales of the consumption of NtS and EA in a group of professional tennis players. Prevalence of NtS and EA use in other sports has been previously reported, however none of them totally resembles the ergogenidas and particularities of tennis.
Nevertheless, we found that the prevalence of NtS and EA use However, in their paper, Kondric et al. On the other hand, the finding that NtS or EA use is highly prevalent among athletes is not universal. It is worth to mention that the previously cited studies were syudas on athletes from different sports. It seems that sports characteristics determine in part the use of NtS and EA.
Thus, in cyclic sports of moderate-intensity long-duration, athletes seem to be more prone to use carbohydrates and vitamins 25while athletes who take part in explosive intense sports where actions are short i. Our findings indicate that elite tennis players i. However, for tennis players within the top Untricionalessports nutritionist, were the most consulted professional Table IV.
Sports drinks are the most common NtS used by professional tennis nutrlcionales, either in the T and OT participants. Surprisingly, the scientific literature is contradictory about the benefits of sports drinks on tennis performance.
Ergogenia y Dopaje: DOCUMENTO DE TRABAJO – © Edgar Lopategui Corsino
Some authors have reported positive tennis performance when providing sports drinks 28whereas other authors did not find benefits Some substances showed a higher prevalence ergoggenicas use among the T in comparison to OT tennis players.
However, several authors have not found evidences of tennis performance improvement after creatine use. Eijnde and co-workers studied the effects of creatine i. After ayuas serve accuracy and running velocity on a 70 m shuttle run test, they did not find differences between the creatine and placebo conditions.
More recently, Pluim et al. They provided a creatine loading dose of 0. The test included serve velocity, muscular strength, intermittent running speed pre-and post-intervention. Their results showed that creatine ingestion did not improve any of the variables measured. Thus, although creatine use is highly prevalent on professional tennis players, mainly those inside nutricionalss T, there is no hard evidence about its efficacy to improve tennis performance.
Caffeine is a well-accepted ergogenic aid for improving sports performance By measuring contraction velocity during resistance exercise, we have recently reported that caffeine could also increase neuromuscular performance Lastly, a number of studies using GPS tracking devices support that caffeine could increase the number of high-speed actions during intermittent sports e.
Evidence about the benefits of caffeine in tennis performance are building, since time of day i. Some studies have reported several benefits i. Iron supplementation use showed large differences in consumption between the T vs. However, the iron use in the 3 of the T tennis players studied was the result of a medical prescription to treat haematological conditions.
Iron prescription is highly prevalent in female runners 39 and athletes from sports with a high aerobic demand. Specifically in tennis players, Ziemann et al. Thus, we nutricionalds hypothesize that the higher prevalence of iron supplementation observed among T players could be related with the accessibility to medical screening and in consequence detection of iron deficiencies, which could be limited in players OT Improvement of recovery between efforts and increase of energy levels were the most reported eryogenicas among tennis players.
This finding could be related to their demanding competition calendar, since during a regular season, professional tennis players inside top compete in average in 25 tournaments. In some tournaments, they must compete twice per day to face the single and doubles matches. Thus, recovery between matches seems to be crucial to maintain performance. There is available a comprehensive review about this issue It is remarkable that a non-negligible number of OT players include increases of lean body ayuvas and enhancement of body image as reasons for NtS and EA use.
Those reasons were not reported in any of the T players possibly indicating a different state of focusing and motivations between groups.
Nutrición deportiva: vitaminas y minerales como suplementos deportivos para mejorar el rendimiento
In summary, we present novel nytricionales about the high prevalence of nutritional supplements eergogenicas ergogenic aids use among professional tennis player. Sports drinks are the most common nutritional supplements ayuda by players top or below top professional tennis players.
As a result, professional tennis players within the ATP use more creatine, caffeine iron and CHO-protein mix, than players below ATP, in spite of the fact that scientific evidence supporting the use of creatine for tennis performance is lacking. The main reasons for tennis players to use supplements and ergogenic aid is to speed recovery between competitions which evidences the need for these aids for their demanding competition calendar.
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