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OJ L1. Chapter 06 Volume P. Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, and in particular Article 53 1 thereof. Managers of alternative investment funds AIFMs are responsible for the management of a significant amount of invested assets in the Union, account for significant amounts of trading in markets for financial instruments, and can exercise an important influence on markets and companies in which they invest.

The impact of AIFMs on the markets in which they operate is largely beneficial, but recent financial difficulties have underlined how the activities of AIFMs may also serve to spread or amplify risks through the financial system. Uncoordinated national responses make the efficient management of those risks difficult.

This Directive therefore aims at establishing common requirements governing the authorisation and supervision of AIFMs in order to provide a coherent approach to the related risks and their impact on investors and markets in the Union. Recent difficulties in financial markets have underlined that many AIFM strategies are vulnerable to some or several important risks in relation to investors, other market participants and markets.

In order to provide comprehensive and common arrangements for supervision, it is necessary to establish a framework capable of addressing those risks taking into account the diverse range of investment strategies and techniques employed by AIFMs. It is intended that the harmonised regime, during a further transitional period of 3 years, co-exist with the national regimes of the Member States subject to certain minimum harmonised conditions.

After that 3-year period of co-existence, it is intended that the national regimes be brought to an end on the entry into force of a further delegated act by the Commission.

The scope of this Directive should be limited to entities managing AIFs as a regular business — regardless of whether the AIF is of an open-ended or a closed-ended type, whatever the legal form of the AIF, and whether or not the AIF is listed — which raise capital from a number of investors with a view to investing that capital for the benefit of those investors in accordance with a defined investment policy.

Investment undertakings, such as family office vehicles which invest the private wealth of investors without raising external capital, should not be considered to be AIFs in accordance with this Directive. As a consequence, this Directive should not apply to holding companies as defined herein. However, managers of private equity funds or AIFMs managing AIFs whose shares are admitted to trading on a regulated market should not be excluded from its scope.

Further, this Directive should not apply to the management of pension funds; employee participation or savings schemes; supranational institutions; national central banks; national, regional and local governments and bodies or institutions which manage funds supporting social security and pension systems; securitisation special purpose entities; or insurance contracts and joint ventures.

However, investment firms should be able, directly or indirectly, to offer units or shares of an AIF to, or place such units or shares with, investors in the Union only to the extent that the units or shares can be marketed in accordance with this Directive.

When transposing this Directive into national law, the Member States should take into account the regulatory purpose of that requirement and should ensure that investment firms established in a third country that, pursuant to the relevant national law, can provide investment services in respect of AIFs also fall within the scope of that requirement. The provision of investment services by those entities in respect of AIFs should never amount to a de facto circumvention of this Directive by means of turning the AIFM into a letter-box entity, irrespective of whether the AIFM is established in the Union or in a third country.

This Directive does not regulate AIFs. AIFs should therefore be able to continue to be regulated and supervised at national level. This Directive therefore does not prevent Member States from adopting or from continuing to apply national requirements in respect of AIFs established in their territory. The fact that a Member State may impose requirements additional to those applicable in other Member States on AIFs established in its territory should not prevent the exercise of rights of AIFMs authorised in accordance with this Directive in other Member States to market to professional investors in the Union certain AIFs established outside the Member State imposing additional requirements and which are therefore not subject to and do not need to comply with those additional requirements.

An example of such fund structures is where the responsibility for appointing the depositary rests with the AIF or another entity acting on behalf of the AIF. In cases of failure of an AIFM to ensure compliance with the applicable requirements of an AIF or another entity on its behalf, the competent authorities should require the AIFM to take the necessary steps to remedy the situation.

If the AIFM fails to resign, the competent authorities of its home Member State should require such resignation and the marketing in the Union of the AIF concerned should no longer be permitted.

Although the activities of the AIFMs concerned are unlikely to have individually significant consequences for financial stability, it is possible that aggregation causes their activities to give rise to systemic risks. Consequently, those AIFMs should not be subject to full authorisation but to registration in their home Member States and should, inter alia, provide their competent authorities with relevant information regarding the main instruments in which they are trading and on the principal exposures and most important concentrations of the AIFs they manage.

However, in order to be able to benefit from the rights granted under this Directive, those smaller AIFMs should be allowed to be treated as AIFMs subject to the opt-in richglinie provided for by this Directive.

That exemption should not limit the ability of Member States to impose stricter requirements on those AIFMs that aim not opted in. An AIFM authorised in accordance with this Directive should meet the conditions for authorisation established in this Directive at all times. Depending on their legal form, it should be possible for AIFs to be either externally or internally managed.

AIFs should be deemed internally managed when the management functions are performed by the governing body or any other internal resource of the AIF.

An AIF should be deemed externally managed when an external legal person has been appointed as manager by or on behalf of the AIF, which through such appointment is responsible for managing the AIF. Management of AIFs should mean providing at least investment management services. The single AIFM to be appointed pursuant to this Directive should never be authorised to provide portfolio management richtoinie also providing risk management or vice versa.


Subject to the conditions set out in this Directive, an authorised AIFM should not, however, be prevented from also engaging in the activities of administration and marketing of an AIF or airm engaging in activities related to the iafm of the AIF. It is necessary to ensure that AIFMs operate subject to robust governance controls. AIFMs should be managed and organised so as to minimise conflicts of interest. The organisational requirements established under this Directive should be without prejudice to systems and controls established by national law for the registration of persons working within or for an AIFM.

It is necessary to provide for the application of minimum capital requirements to ensure the continuity and the regularity of the management of AIFs provided by an AIFM and to cover the potential exposure of AIFMs to professional liability in respect of all their activities, including the management of AIFs under a delegated mandate.

AIFMs should be free to choose whether to cover potential risks of professional liability by additional own funds or by an appropriate professional indemnity insurance. In order ricthlinie address the potentially detrimental effect of poorly designed remuneration structures on the sound management of risk and control of risk-taking ricthlinie by individuals, there should be an express obligation for AIFMs iafm establish and maintain, for those categories of staff whose professional activities have a material impact on the risk profiles of AIFs they manage, remuneration policies and practices that are consistent with sound and effective risk management.

Those categories of staff should at least include senior management, risk takers, control functions, and any employees receiving total remuneration that takes them into the same remuneration bracket as senior management and risk takers.

The principles governing remuneration policies should richtliine that AIFMs are able to apply those policies in different ways according to their size and the size of the AIFs they manage, their internal organisation and the nature, the scope and the complexity of their activities.

Reliable and objective asset valuation is crucial for the protection of investor interests. AIFMs employ different methodologies and systems for valuing assets, depending on the assets and markets in which they predominantly invest. It is appropriate to recognise those differences but, nevertheless, to require in all cases AIFMs to implement valuation procedures resulting in the proper valuation of assets of AIFs.

The process for valuation of assets and calculation of the net asset value should be functionally ricytlinie from the portfolio management and the remuneration policy of the AIFM and other measures should ensure that conflicts of interest are prevented and that undue influence on the employees xifm prevented. Subject to certain conditions, AIFMs should be able to appoint an external valuer to perform the valuation function.

Subject to strict limitations and requirements, including the existence of objective reasons, an AIFM should be rkchtlinie to delegate the carrying out of some of its functions on its behalf in accordance with this Directive so as to increase the efficiency of the conduct of aidm business.

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Subject to the same conditions, sub-delegation should also be allowed. AIFMs should, however, remain responsible for the proper performance of the delegated functions and compliance with this Directive at all times. The strict limitations and requirements set out on the delegation of tasks by AIFMs should apply to the delegation of management functions set out in Annex I. Delegation of supporting tasks, such as administrative or technical functions performed by the AIFM as a part of its management wifm, should not be subject to the specific limitations and requirements set out in this Directive.

Recent developments underline the crucial need to separate asset safe-keeping and management functions, and to segregate investor assets from those of the manager.

Rifhtlinie should, however, be adapted to the specificities of different business models. For richtljnie business models certain depositary tasks are more richtllnie than for others, depending on the type of assets the AIFs are investing in and the tasks related to those assets.

For AIFs that have no redemption rights exercisable during the period of 5 years from the date of the initial investments and that, in accordance with their core investment policy, generally do not invest in assets that richt,inie be held in custody in accordance with this Directive or generally invest in issuers or non-listed companies in order potentially to acquire control akfm such companies in accordance with this Directive, such as private equity, venture capital funds and real ricjtlinie funds, Member States should be able to allow a notary, a lawyer, a registrar or another entity to be appointed to carry out depositary functions.

In such cases the depositary functions should be part of professional or business activities in respect of which the appointed entity is subject to mandatory professional registration recognised by law or to legal or regulatory provisions or rules of professional conduct and can provide sufficient financial and professional guarantees to enable it to perform effectively the relevant depositary functions and meet the commitments inherent in those functions.

This takes account of current practice for certain types of closed-ended funds. For non-EU AIFs only, it should also be possible for richtlinnie depositary to be a credit institution or any other entity of the same nature as the entities referred to in this recital as long as it is subject to effective prudential regulation and supervision which have the same effect as Union law and are effectively enforced.

The depositary should have its registered office or a branch in the same country as the Richtlibie. It should be possible for a non-EU AIF to have a depositary established in the relevant third country only if certain additional conditions are met.

How to mitigate the AIFM Directive impacts on small AIF ? – AIFM-Richtlinie | XING

On the dichtlinie of the criteria set out in delegated acts, the Commission should be empowered to adopt implementing measures, stating that prudential regulation and supervision of a third country have the same effect as Union law and are effectively enforced. The Commission is invited to examine the possibilities of putting forward an appropriate horizontal legislative proposal that clarifies the responsibilities and liabilities of a depositary and richglinie the right of a depositary in one Member State to provide its services in another Member State.

A depositary should act honestly, fairly, professionally, independently and in the interest of the AIF or of the investors of the AIF. It should aifj possible for a depositary to delegate the safe-keeping of assets to a third party which, in its turn, should be able to delegate that function. However, delegation and sub-delegation should be objectively justified and subject to strict requirements in relation to the suitability of the third party entrusted with the delegated function, and in relation to the due skill, care and diligence that the depositary should employ to select, appoint and review that third party.

The strict limitations and requirements to which the delegation of tasks by the depositary is aiifm should apply to the delegation of its specific functions as a depositary, namely the monitoring of the cash flow, the safe-keeping of assets and the oversight functions. Delegation of supporting tasks that are linked to its depositary tasks, such as administrative or technical functions performed by the depositary as akfm part of its depositary tasks, is not subject to the specific limitations and requirements set out in this Directive.


This Directive also takes account of the fact that many AIFs, and in particular hedge funds, currently make use of a prime broker. This Directive ensures that AIFs may continue to use the function of prime brokers. However, unless it has functionally and hierarchically separated the performance of its depositary functions from its tasks as prime broker and the potential conflicts of interest are properly identified, managed and disclosed to the investors of the AIF, no prime broker should be appointed as a depositary, since prime brokers act as counterparties to AIFs and therefore cannot at the same time act in the best interest of the AIF as is required of a depositary.

Depositaries should be able to delegate custody tasks to one or more prime brokers or other third parties. In addition to the delegated custody tasks prime brokers should be allowed to provide prime brokerage services to the AIF. Those prime brokerage services should not form part of the delegation arrangement.

This Directive distinguishes between the loss of financial instruments held in custody, and any other losses. In the case of a loss other than of financial instruments held in custody, the depositary should be liable in the case of intent or negligence.

AIFM-Richtlinie : Frank Dornseifer :

Where the depositary holds assets in custody and those assets are lost, the depositary should richtlini liable, unless it can prove that the loss is the result of an external event beyond its reasonable control, the consequences of which would have been unavoidable despite all reasonable efforts to the contrary.

In this context, a depositary should not, for example, be able to ricjtlinie on internal situations such as a fraudulent act by an employee to discharge itself of liability. Where the depositary delegates custody tasks and the financial instruments held in custody by a third party are lost, the depositary should be liable. However, provided that the depositary is expressly allowed to discharge itself of liability subject to a contractual transfer of such liability to that third party, pursuant to a written contract between the depositary and the AIF or the AIFM acting on behalf of the AIF, in which such a discharge is objectively justified, and that the third party aivm be held liable for the loss based on a contract between the depositary and the third party, the depositary should be able to discharge itself of liability if it can prove that it has exercised due skill, care and diligence and that the specific requirements for delegation are met.

By imposing the requirement of a contractual transfer of liability to the third party, this Directive intends to attach external effects to such contract, making the third party directly liable to the AIF, or to the investors of the AIF, for the loss of the financial instruments held in custody. Further, where the richhlinie of a third country richtllnie that certain financial instruments be held in custody by a local entity and there are no local entities that satisfy all depositary delegation requirements, the depositary should be able to discharge itself of liability provided that: An AIFM should, for each of the EU AIFs it manages and for each of the AIFs it markets in the Union, make available richtlinke annual report for each financial year no later than 6 months following the end of the financial year in accordance with this Directive.

That 6-month period aimf be without prejudice to the right of the Member States to impose a shorter period. Given richhtlinie it is possible for an AIFM to employ leverage and, under certain conditions, to contribute to the build up of systemic risk richtliinie disorderly markets, special requirements should be imposed on AIFMs employing leverage.

The information needed to detect, monitor and respond to those risks has not been collected in a consistent way throughout the Union, and shared across Member States so as to identify rifhtlinie sources of risk to the stability of financial markets in the Union. To remedy that situation, special requirements should apply to AIFMs which employ leverage on a substantial basis at the level of the AIF. Such AIFMs should be required to disclose information regarding the overall level of leverage aicm, the leverage arising from borrowing of cash or securities and the leverage arising from positions held in derivatives, the reuse of assets and the main sources of leverage in their AIFs.

If one or more AIFs managed by an AIFM could potentially constitute an important source of counterparty risk to a credit institution or other systemically relevant institutions in other Member Richtlinif, such information should also be shared with the relevant authorities.

In order to ensure a proper assessment of the risks induced by the use of leverage by an AIFM with respect to the AIFs it manages, the AIFM should demonstrate that the leverage limits for each AIF it manages are reasonable and that it complies with those limits at all times.

Where the stability and integrity of the financial system may be threatened, the competent authorities of the home Member State of the AIFM should be able to impose limits to the level of leverage that an AIFM can employ in AIFs under its management. It is also considered necessary to allow ESMA, after taking into account the advice of the ESRB, to determine that the leverage used by an AIFM or by a group of AIFMs poses a substantial risk to the stability and the integrity of the financial system and to issue advice to rchtlinie authorities specifying the remedial measures to be taken.

It is necessary to ensure that rochtlinie competent authorities of the home Member State of the AIFM, the companies over which AIFs managed by an AIFM exercise control and the employees of such companies receive certain information necessary for those companies to assess how that control will impact their situation.

In order to ensure transparency regarding the controlled company, enhanced transparency, disclosure and reporting requirements should apply. Further, the annual reports richtlibie the relevant AIF should be supplemented with regard to the controlled company or such additional information should be included in the annual report of the controlled company.

Specific information requirements towards employees of certain companies apply in cases where AIFs acquire control over such companies in accordance with this Directive.